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Full text of "The Cambridge Natural History"

TOOTHED WHALES

that Is to say, it is long and not very high. The skull is most
like that of Balaena,, but the process of the frontal arching over
the eye is broader relatively than in Bcdaena, and thus approaches
JSalaenoptera. Nothing is known of the viscera of this "Whale.
The whalebone is white, and the animal was first described by
Dr. Gray from pieces of " "bone." It is not always that so
fortunate a diagnosis of specific or generic difference has been
made from a structure which apparently offers so little aid for
discrimination,

There  is but a single  species of the genus  which is named
J^eobala&na marc/inata,.1

SUB-ORDER  2.     ODONTOOETL
The Odontoceti have teeth but no whalebone; the blow-hole
is single; the skull is not symmetrical; some of the ribs are
two-headed.
Fam. 1. Physeteridae.—This family of the Odontocetes may
be thus denned:—All or most of the cervical vertebrae are fused
together. The costal cartilages are not ossified. In the skull the
pterygoids are thick and meet in the middle line ; the syra-
physis of the mandible is long. Teeth, more or fewer, are found
in both jaws, but those of the mandible are alone functional
(? exc. JToffia). The pectoral limb is smallish. The throat is
grooved by two or four furrows.
This family of Whales is again susceptible of division into
the two sub-families—Physeterinae or Sperm Whales and the
£iphiinae or Beaked Whales. Professor P. J. van Beneden was
strongly against any subdivision of what is here regarded as a
perfectly natural family, embracing the Physeters and the Beaked
Whales. There are, however, some reasons for the subdivision. The
Ziphiinae have a reduced series of teeth, never exceeding two on
each mandible, which contrasts with the fully-toothed mandibles
of both Physeter and Kogia,* The stomach of the Ziphioids is
extraordinarily complicated even for a Cetacean. The small
bead of the 1atter group, which recalls in a curious way that of
Mosasauroid reptiles and some Dinosaurs, is in contrast to the
1 For osteology see Hector,   Trans,  New Zeal. 2nst.   vii.,1876,  p. 251;   and
Bed&tid, 'Trans. Zo&l. Soc. xv. 1901, jx 87.